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HIGHTS Deliverables: “Standardization & Regulation”
"Worldwide Standards and Regulation Landscape for Cooperative ITS Systems"
Date: May 2016
The success of a cooperative communication systems for safety critical applications in the intelligent transport system (ITS) domain will be based on the establishment of a stable regulatory framework covering the main topics of spectrum, security, privacy and other legal aspects and the specification of a binding set of standards at least on a regional level. A worldwide harmonization would be beneficial for the cost efficient integration of cooperative ITS systems into the car fleet and is of importance as products are shipped worldwide.
In the regulatory domain one of the main topics is the provision and protection of a sufficient amount of spectrum resources for a long-term deployment and extension (including Geolocation related) of cooperative ITS systems worldwide. The required amount of spectrum has to be evaluated not only based on the actual application scenarios planned for the coming years but also towards long-term deployment of highly automated driving and urban ITS such as Vulnerable Road User (VRU) application scenario. For this the ITU-R World Radio Conference (WRC) 2019 agenda item 1.12 on ITS will support this effort and could lead to an harmonized protected spectrum allocation worldwide. The main focus in the actual discussion will be the deployment of cooperative ITS in the 5.9GHz band, which is already mostly designated in Europe, USA, Australia and other regions. The use of the 63GHz band should be included into this worldwide discussion, as this band is already part of the ITS allocated (not yet designated) bands in Europe, recognized in USA and will be an important component for the further development of fully automated traffic applications. In addition, the possible extension of the licensed exempt bands for Radio LAN (RLAN) use up to 5925MHz will be part of a detailed coexistence evaluation as part of the WRC19 Agenda Item 1.16. The ITU-R discussion will clearly guide the further spectrum regulatory discussions on the regional levels, e.g. in Europe in CEPT and in the US in FCC discussion. It will be essential for the ITS community worldwide to actively participate into these activities in order to guarantee the availability and protection of sufficient spectrum resources.
In the standardization domain, over the last 7 years a large number of standardization organizations are involved in the development of interoperable standards for C-ITS. In the past years harmonisation between the regions has taken place but the detailed use of the set of standards still depends on the region of use.
From a European perspective the following standards are of importance for the deployment of C-ITS:
- ETSI–G5 (ETIS TC ITS) including the network and transport layer, facilities layer and an access layer profile based on IEEE802.11p
- IEEE 802.11 access layer standardization (11p included in IEEE802.11-2012)
- ISO with its functional standards from working group WG204 and some from WG22
- CEN with standards from WG278, with strong relations to ISO WG204
It can be expected that a European profile based on ETSI-G5 will also to be deployed in Australia.
In the USA mainly the following standards are relevant:
- IEEE 1609, WAVE standards
- IEEE 802.11 access layer standardization (11p)
- SAE with J2735 and J2945 including functional requirements and strong harmonization with the ETSI standards
Based on the public interest in autonomous driving other standards have now shown interest in the C-ITS domain. Recently 3GPP has started an activity to standardise a cooperative version of the LTE standard (LTE-LAA and flavours), as it shows in the first place to get access to the ITS spectrum worldwide. As actual deployment of the ETSI standards and the IEEE Wave standards has already been backed by intensive testing they are enhanced and suited for the immediate ITS deployment. Mobile solutions may provide additional possibilities. They are considered in the HIGHTS project when ever possible but it will take some additional time before related technologies can be used.
In a specific geographic region (e.g. Europe, US/Canada) only one system for cooperative ITS will make sense in order to guarantee a smooth interoperability on all protocol layers. It can be assumed that the US NHTSA (National Highway Traffic Safety Administration) will mandate the use of the WAVE based cooperative systems in the next 12 Month with a target implementation date of 2018/2019 for new cars and Infrastructure installations. In Europe we have a basic allocation in the 5.9 GHz band in place. Some additional recognized ITS spectrum still needs to get designated in the future. Deployment in Europe will not be regulated but industry supports and stimulates the use of ETSI ITS-G5 based systems.
For near and beyond future, further enhancements of the existing standards (including needs for location precision) for C-ITS are envisioned and indicated by first new standards developments at ETSI, SAE, ISO, CEN and IEEE in order to extend the possible application scenarios towards fully automated driving and safe and clean Urban ITS supported by positioning of these standards as part of the 5G and IMT2020 family of communication systems.